Bio & Medicine

Researchers discover that a protein nanoparticle vaccination with adjuvant enhances the immunological response to influenza.

According to a new study that was published by researchers from the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University, a novel type of protein nanoparticle vaccine formulation that contained influenza proteins as well as an adjuvant to boost immune responses has provided complete protection against influenza viral challenges.

A promising influenza vaccine candidate that makes use of adjuvants—substances that enhance the immune system’s response to a vaccine—to improve its effectiveness against viral infections is the subject of research that was recently published in the journal Small.

Using influenza nucleoprotein as the core and NA1-M2e or NA2-M2e surface proteins as the coating antigens, the researchers created a novel type of core/shell protein nanoparticle. The surface protein coating can be precisely controlled with the new nanoparticle fabrication, and any excess coating proteins can be recovered for reuse.

“We discovered that the new protein nanoparticles in combination with the adjuvants were able to dramatically enhance the mucosal immune responses and the accumulation of lung resident memory cells in the local respiratory tracts, offering total protection against influenza viral infections.”

Dr. Wandi Zhu, first author of the study.

As a result, the yield and quality of nanoparticles are significantly enhanced. For the purpose of determining the immune response and effectiveness in protecting against influenza viral infections, protein nanoparticles with and without immune-stimulating complexes were administered intramuscularly or intranasally to mice.

Dr. Wandi Zhu, first author of the study and research assistant professor in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State, stated, “We found that the novel protein nanoparticles combined with the adjuvants could induce significantly improved mucosal immune responses and the accumulation of lung resident memory cells in the local respiratory tracts, providing complete protection against influenza viral infections.”

Flu An infection is perhaps the most undermining respiratory microbe and can cause extreme horribleness, mortality, and weighty financial burdens, particularly in influenza plagues or pandemics. The selection of vaccine strains is based on circulating viral surveillance and prediction, even though vaccination is effective in preventing or reducing viral infections during annual flu seasons.

Vaccine efficacy could be significantly compromised by mismatched strains. Additionally, it takes a long time to produce the current quadrivalent influenza vaccine. A universal influenza vaccine cannot be easily manufactured without new vaccine technologies. The development of various protein nanoparticle vaccines against the influenza A and B viruses has been the primary focus of the research team’s efforts.

“The pestilences brought about by the flu infection genuinely undermine general wellbeing and the economy,” said Dr. Baozhong Wang, senior creator of the review and recognized college teacher in the Establishment for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State. “Important strategies for increasing protection include adding the right adjuvants to boost immunogenicity and discovering efficient mucosal vaccines to combat respiratory infection at the point of virus entry.

In a variety of immunization methods, adjuvanted protein nanoparticles may enhance robust systemic and mucosal immune responses, providing protection. This study emphasizes the significance of including adjuvants in the formulations of mucosal vaccines. Zhu explained that the adjuvanted protein nanoparticles can be utilized as mucosal vaccines on their own or in conjunction with other vaccines to further enhance mucosal immunity and protection.

Zhu stated, “The new surface protein coating is a fabrication method that is more controlled and efficient than our previous process, substantially increasing the utilization of the initial proteins.” The method has the potential to be used to create universal influenza vaccines containing influenza antigens from the A and B viruses. The blend of the immunization with proper adjuvants will be promising for mucosal antibody up-and-comers.”

More information: ISCOMs/MPLA-Adjuvanted SDAD Protein Nanoparticles Induce Improved Mucosal Immune Responses and Cross-Protection in Mice, Small (2023). DOI: 10.1002/

Topic : Article